Oak Harbor Freight Lines


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Accessorial Charges – A charge for services over and above transportation charges such as: inside delivery, heading, sort and segregate, heating, storage, etc.

Advanced Charge – Any charge other than applicable freight charges advanced by one transportation line to another, or to be collected from the consignee.

Air bill – Document for an air carrier that gives a description of the freight, weight, freight charges, shipper, consignee, and who is responsible for freight charges. This is equivalent to our freight bill for an air carrier.

Arrival Notice – A notice, furnished to the consignee, that their freight has arrived.

Astray Freight – Freight bearing marks indicating origin and destination, but separate from the waybill.

Balance Sheet – one of four financial statements required to be published by public corporations. This document states the assets, liabilities, and owners equity for a specific date.

Bill of Lading – The written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or their agents). It identifies the freight, shipper, consignee, and terms of the agreement. All goods going to a receiver at one destination on a single shipment or in one truck should be on a single bill of lading.  The Straight bill of lading provides that freight be delivered to the receiver shown on the bill. It is non-negotiable, and always printed on white paper.  This type of bill is not required except when it is necessary, for example, for certain bonded goods such as liquor.  The Order bill of lading is negotiable, and always printed on yellow paper. Its purpose is to enable the shipper to collect freight charges before it reaches its destination.  The shipper sends an original bill of lading and a draft for the charges through the bank.  The receiver pays the carrier’s agent the amount of the draft and then can receive the goods. With this method, the shipper customarily consigns the shipment to himself. The person or company to be notified at destination is specified.  The shipment may be released to the receiver only upon the order of the shipper.  The order bill of lading must be surrendered with the delivery of the freight.  Either straight or order bills of lading may be designated as “through.”  A Through bill of lading covers a shipment that will be in multiple transportation systems and has one charge for all services.  More than one mode of transportation may be used, for example, sea, truck and rail.

Board - Pallet


Bonded Warehouse – A warehouse owned by persons approved by the Treasury Department.   Under bond or guarantee for the strict observance of the revenue laws, they are utilized for storing goods until duties are paid or goods are otherwise properly released.

Break bulk – breaking down a composite load from one shipper that will go to multiple consignees.

Break bulk point – the terminal or location that break bulk has taken place.

Carrier – An individual, partnership or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or persons.

Cartage (local) – Hauling between locations in the same town or city or continuous municipalities.

Cash List- when a customer that has had credit terms with OHFL and we remove the privilege and put them back on a cash basis.  With a cash list customer no freight is to be picked up or delivered without having all charges related to that customer paid first.


Cash Only – this is similar to cash list but we do not accept anything but cash or cashiers checks for payment of charges.


Claim – (a) A demand made upon a carrier for payment on account of loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in their possession.  (b) A demand upon a carrier for refund of an overcharge. See Overcharge.


Classification – A factor used to assign rates to shipments. Classifications are based on density, size and value of the goods that are being shipped. A guide has been created by NMFC board that is universally accepted by all major LTL freight carriers.


C.O.D. (Cash on delivery) – this is a request from the shipper for the carrier to pickup a check upon delivery that will be payment for the goods being delivered. This is will be declared on the bill of lading, and will specify what forms of payment they will accept (company check, or cashiers check).


Collect Terms – the consignee is responsible for the freight charges.


Concealed Damage – Damage to the contents of a package, which is apparently in good condition externally.


Concurrence – an agreement between two carriers, which specifies how revenue from shared shipments are to be split.  It also usually specifies which accessorial charges are to be applied and points that freight will be interchanged.


Connecting Carrier – Any carrier that is receiving from or delivering to another carrier.

Consignee – the individual or business to receive the freight being shipped.

Consignor – also known as shipper, it is the person or business that is originating the shipment.


Container – anything in which articles are packed.


Contract – A legal document between two parties. In the LTL freight world a contract specifies the rates to be used and any deviation from the tariff that will be encountered while shipping a specific customers freight. These are administered by the rating department, and can be viewed by anyone.


Contract Carrier – a carrier that we pay to haul our freight usually in a line haul situation.


Corrected bill of lading (CBL) – a document issued by the shipper to amend the original bill of lading.


Cost Per Bill – any cost that is allocated by total bills. For example our total cost per bill for a month is calculated by dividing our total costs by the total number of bills for the same period.


Credit Application – a document used to collect data on a customer to determine credit worthiness.


Customer Focus Groups – a panel of customers put together with the purpose of giving the company feedback about any number of service or marketing related topics.


Dead Head – A shipment that is no charge from its origin to its destination


Dedicated – The act of committing specific equipment to a customer for there use only.  This can be runs or deliveries outside of the normal system.


Deficit Weight  - weight added to a bill to put the shipment up to a weight, which will reduce the total charges. This takes advantage of the rate reduction for higher weights.


Delivery Purpose only (DPO) – no charge bills that represent one bill of lading that are combined with other DPOs to forma master-bill. This will take advantage of the lower rates for heavier shipments. The master bill will carry all revenue; it is also called a Revenue bill.


Delivery Receipt (DR)  - A document used to obtain a signature from the consignee when a shipment is delivered. Upon signing one copy is given to the signor and one copy is obtained for our records. This document is also known as a “Proof of Delivery.”


Demurrage - The detention of a freight vehicle or container beyond a stipulated timeframe. (See detention).


Density – A measurement of a shipment’s volume. Calculated by length x width x height / 1728 and measured in pounds/cubic foot.

Density Rule – If a shipment occupies 750 cubic feet or more and has a density of less than or equal to 5 cubic feet the class will be changed to 200.

Detention – Time that our driver is forced to wait for unloading at a customers’ facility, this is charged in Ό hour increments at a rate of $65.00 per hour. Some customers are exempt from this or have specific rates for this service.

Direct Point - This is a zip code that we service with our own equipment and driver. If we use an interline, agent or partner to service the zip code it is called an indirect point

Discount - the contractual percentage of reduction off straight tariff rates. Oak Harbor has a house discount of 35%. This means that no freight bill that is rated based on rates less discount should have a discount less than 35%.

Dispatching – The scheduling and control of intra-city traffic (line haul) and intercity pick up and delivery (P&D).

Diversion – A change made in the route of a shipment in transit.

Dock Receipt  - A receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a pier or dock. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the transportation line and a bill of lading is issued.

Dock Worker  - a person employed to transfer freight from one container to another and maintain dock spaces.

Dolly  - a piece of equipment with 2 wheels used to attach a trailer to the back of another trailer to make sets or triples.

Doubles – A set of 2 trailers connected to one tractor.


Drayage  - The charge made for hauling freight on carts, drays or trucks.

Driver Collect  - A freight charge term meaning the driver must collect the freight charges from the consignee at the time of delivery.

Dropped COD  - when a driver fails to pick up a COD check from the consignee at the time of delivery.

Exceptions  - Any discrepancy noted at the time of delivery or interchange relating to the number of pieces or physical characteristics of the freight.

Feeder Line Service – Short transportation lines that run from a truck line into nearby areas to collect and distribute freight. Usually 25 to 35 miles long.

Financial statements – Documents published by the entity for the purpose of showing financial position and results of activity with the express purpose of securing capital or making management decisions. The 4 principal documents are Balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows and statement of retained earnings.

Flatbed – a semi-trailer with no sides

Free Astray – A shipment miscarried or unloaded at he wrong terminal is billed and forwarded to the correct terminal free of charge because it is astray.

Free On Board (FOB) – Usually indicates the place where title of the goods is transferred and responsibility for expenses become the receivers. The two common terms are FOB destination and FOB dock. FOB dock means that the title changes hands at the shippers dock and therefore the freight charges are collect.  FOB destination means that the title changes hands upon receipt at consignee location and freight charges are therefore prepaid.

Free Time – the period of time freight will be held before storage charges are applied.

Freight Bill – A document for a common carrier shipment. It gives a description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges (if collect), the rate for charges, and terms of the shipment. If the charges are to be collected in advance or paid by shipper the bills is called a prepaid freight bill. If the charges are to be collected on delivery or paid by the consignee it is called a collect shipment.

Freight Charge – Amount due for freight transportation usually excluding assessorial charges.

Freight Claim – See Claim


Freight Classification – See Classification

Freight Forwarder - A company that consolidates freight for many shippers, arranges for shipment and delivery via LTL carriers and gets lower rates based on volume than the individual shippers could obtain.

Grievance – the process of filing a formal complaint with the union that they will then counsel and represent you in the matter before an arbitrator.  The process and procedures surrounding this process are defined in the labor agreement.

Gross Weight – (a) the weight of the freight including the packaging; (b) as applied to a truck, the weight of a truck together with its contents.

Gypsy – An independent truck operator who drives his/her own truck and obtains freight wherever he/she can.

Haustler – the same thing as a yard dog, used to move trailers around a terminal facility.

Hoopie – a tractor and trailer on the same frame that do not disconnect. Usually used for deliveries in downtown city spaces.

Icing Charge – a charge for Icing down perishable freight.

Imaging – a system used to store digital images of important documents.

In Bond – Goods on which a duty or tax is due are “in bond” when placed in the custody of a government or bonded warehouse or are moving by bonded carrier. Bonding guarantees that the duty will be paid.

Income Statement – a financial statement that shows the results of a company over a period of time. This statement includes revenue and expenses from operations as well as other non-operating items. The primary connection to the balance sheet is through retained earnings, which is the accumulation of prior and current periods net income or loss.

Inland Carrier – Transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland locations.

Inland Tariff Bureau – The organization that publishes tariffs and maintains the updates to ensure the public has access to the documents.

Interchange Points - The Zip code where freight is interchanged between two transportation lines, this will usually determine the split of the revenue.

Interline – A transportation company that performs one of the parts of the freight transaction but not all and usually agrees to bill and pay other carriers or bill another carrier for their charges in order to facilitate only one bill to the customer.

Interline Freight – Freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies.

Intermediate Carrier – A transportation line hauling a shipment between two transportation systems, but not originating or delivering the shipment to the consignee.

Interstate Commerce Commission – The federal body charged with enforcing acts of congress relating to interstate commerce.   

Joint Rate – a rate for hauling a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines. The shipment travels on one bill of lading.

Labor Agreement – the contract between the unions and Oak Harbor relating to personnel.

Leadership Team  - the group of 14 people that is charged with the upper level management of our company. The only body over them is the quality counsel.

Lien – A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of a debt or duty.

Less Than Truckload (LTL) - A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of truckload rates.

Lift gate – An attachment to the back of a trailer that raises and lowers from the ground to the trailer deck. Most carriers charge an accessorial for lift gate service, but Oak Harbor does not.

Line Driver – A driver that moves freight between terminals and is not doing pick up at customers or Delivery to customers, accept in special situations.

Line haul – the system (equipment and people) that moves freight from one terminal to the other.

LTL 400 – the operating Program utilized on our IBM AS-400 computer.

Manifest – A document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle, container or ship.

Marks – Letters, numbers and characters put on a package for identification purposes.

Master-bill – Consolidation of multiple bills of lading typically going to the same consignee at the same time, for the purposes for getting a lower rate due to larger amounts of total weight.

Maximum Rate – The highest contracted rate that may be charged.

Minimum Rate – The lowest contracted rated that may be charged.

Natural work Groups – Groups of people that are naturally linked by their job duties.

Nested – When commodity is packed one within another.

New Weight – (a) the weight of the commodity clear of packaging or container, or (b) as applied to the truck, the weight of the contents without the weight of the truck itself.

Operating Ratio (O.R.) – Ratio of Expenses to Revenue, calculated by dividing the total expenses by the total revenue. This is the main financial measurement used at Oak Harbor and is the driver for the union profit share plan.

Origin Carrier – the carrier that picks up the freight from the shipper and receives the bill of lading.

Origin Terminal – the terminal that picks up the freight from the shipper and obtains a bill of lading.

Overage, Short and Damaged (OS&D) – Discrepancies between freight on hand and freight shown on the bill of lading. Freight not shown on the bill of lading is considered over, if some is missing then it is a shortage. Freight that has received damage is called damaged. Most of these issues are found in the notations at delivery, pickup or interchange.

Overcharge  - To charge more than the contracted amount.

Over the Road (OTR) – This means the freight is within the line haul system, or is between terminals.

P&D Driver – A driver that does the Pickup from the shipper or delivery to the consignee.

Packing List – A detailed specification of packed materials.

Pallet – A portable platform for holding materials for storage or transportation.

Pallet Deck – a metal support that allows us to stack two pallets of freight on top of each other in a trailer. Typically they are used in line haul movements

Payment Facility - A company that its purpose is to audit and pay freight bills for other companies. Examples are CASS, Corpay, Nolan & Cunning, and Tranzact.

Perishable Freight – Freight subject to decay or Deterioration.

Piggyback – Transportation of a highway trailer on a rail flatcar.

Point of Origin - Zip code of where the shipper’s location is.

Port of Entry – A government designated port where foreign goods are admitted into a country. Also refers to the border stations maintained by some states to check truck compliance with their laws.

Prepaid Terms – the shipper is responsible for paying the freight charges.

Pro Number – A Progressively sequential numbering system used to identify freight bills. Our system uses a 3 digit terminal code followed by 7 digits.

Profit Sharing – A system by which profit from operations is distributed to the plan participants.

Proof Of Delivery (POD) – See Delivery Receipt  

PUP Rate - A rate to move a full 28 foot trailer. the rate can be determined by one time quote or off the trailer load Matrix.

Quality Improvement Teams (QIT) – A team put together to address a specific issue within Oak Harbor. The team is usually guided by a specific objective and has a cross-functional make up.

Quality Counsel – A group made up of the president(s), vice president of sales and Director of Quality. They are the supreme authority within Oak Harbor. They are also members of the Leadership Team.

Rate – The charge for transporting freight.  

Rate base - Another name for Tariff, a published set of rates.

Rate Per hundred-weight (CWH) – the multiplier, found in the tariff based on class and weight, used to calculate the gross freight charge. The calculation is per hundredweight, which means that 116lbs is 1.16 hundredweight. If you had a CWH of 45.70 and 116 lbs the gross freight charge would be 53.01 (45.70 x 1.16 = 53.01)

Release Rate – A special low rate for shipments on which the carrier’s liability for loss or damage is limited to an agreed amount.

Release Value – The value of the goods set by the shipper as the carrier’s limit of liability. It relates to the classification and rate charged for moving the freight.

Return Authorization (RA) - A document issued by the original shipper authorizing the freight be returned.

Rendition Billing – This is a billing that we are required by the customer to include documents in image with each freight bill. Usually the documents required are Bill of lading or Delivery receipt or both.

Revenue Bill – A bill containing revenue. Most commonly used in reference to master billing, you will have DPO’s and a Revenue bill.

Route – (a) The coarse or direction the shipment moves, or (b) the plan for deliveries laid out for a P&D driver by dispatch.

Safety Rating – a measurement of how safe a company is based on miles driven between accidents.  

SCAC - Standard Carrier Alpha Code - this is a code given to all freight carriers by the department of transportation to identify each carrier uniquely.  

Seal – A device used to ensure that a trailer is not opened in transit.

Section 7 – The area on the bill of lading that allows the shipper to assign a shipment as collect without recourse if signed. If the freight carrier delivers the freight on terms, without receiving payment first, it is at the carriers own risk and the carrier has no recourse to the shipper if payment is not received from the consignee or third party assigned on the bill of lading.

Service Rating – A measurement of on time deliveries

Set – term used to describe a group of trailers that are attached to a single power unit, either doubles, singles or triples.

Shipper – Also known as consignor, the person or business originating the shipment.

Shipper’s load and Count – when the shipper does the loading and verifies the quantity count. The shipper also takes responsibility for the condition of the load in transit to unloading point.

Shipping Order – Instructions to a carrier for transportation of a shipment. Usually it is a copy of the bill of lading. Used also as a record by the freight agent at origin.

Shortage – when the quantity delivered is less than the quantity received at pickup.

Shortage Change – Payment due for shortages.

Single – one trailer behind a single power unit

Split Pickup or Delivery – An accessorial service of picking up or delivering portions of volume shipments at more than one place within origin or destination point boundaries.

Statement  - A list of one or more bills for a specific customer.

Statement of Cash Flows – One of the four financial statements required to publish by public corporations. It shows the inflows and outflows of cash for a given period. The statement is broken down into three sections, cash from operations, Financing and Investing.

Statute of Limitations – A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted. For trucking and rail it is 3 years, for air it is usually 6 years.

Store Door Delivery – The movement of goods to the consignee’s place of business.

Super Dock Worker – A dockworker that is on the seniority board and has benefits.

System  - A term used to describe the entire pick up; delivery, and line haul operation within the company.

Tare Weight – (a) the weight of the materials used to package the freight or (b) as it pertains to a truck, the weight of the tractor and trailer exclusive of its contents.

Tariff - A schedule of transportation rates and or rules relating to transportation of freight.

Terminal - A building used for the handling and temporary storage of freight as it is transferred between trucks, from city pickup to intercity truck, for example.

Terms – Terms indicate who is responsible to pay the freight charges. See Collect, Prepaid, Driver Collect, and Third Party Billing.

Third Party Billing - a situation where a different party than either the shipper or consignee is responsible for paying the freight charges. This can be either collect 3rd party or Prepaid 3rd Party, depending on who the 3rd party is paying on behalf of.

Through Rate – A rate applicable for transportation from the origin to destination. A through rate may be a single system rate, joint rate, or a combination of two or more rates.  

Tolerance  - The level at which the system will write off the balance of a bill if short paid or overpaid, usually 3.00. This is because it will cost both OHFL and the customer more money to try to collect or refund.

Terminal Performance & Costing (TPC)  - The system Oak Harbor uses to measure the drivers, dock and dispatch effectiveness on a daily basis.

Tractor – The power unit used to pull trailer(s). Single axle tractors are usually used for pickup and delivery and double axle trailers are used for line haul moves.

Trailer – A piece of equipment used to house goods in transit. Trailer will have a rear set of wheels but no drive wheels attached.

Triples - A set of 3 trailers connected to one tractor.

Truckload (TL)  -  (a) Quantity of weight that will fill a trailer; (b) Quantity of weight being the legal maximum for that type of trailer; (c) when associated with pricing, it is a level of weight that will quality the shipper for a truckload rate, usually less than a full LTL trailer.  

Truck Load Matrix - An internal published list of rates for full 28 foot pup loads from one terminal to an other.

Warehousing – the storing of goods

Way Bill – Description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment.

Yard Dog – A special tractor used to move trailers around the terminal facility. Some are licensed for street use but not all.